Prevents Formation of Scale Etc.

Chemical-Free Water Treatment

Industrial Process Streams Kessler's Inc. produces a variety of meat products for distribution in 14 Eastern states. For over 80 years the company has produced quality products and remained competitive in the marketplace. Efficiency in plant operations and cost control for Kessler's, as with any corporation, are top priorities.

Besides cost savings from reductions in chemicals and maintenance due to the Triangular Wave Deposit Control System, Kessler's Inc. experienced a cost savings they did not expect. It started as a mystery to Ed Byrem, Kessler's Plant Manager, and the management at Kessler's. "Our controller approached me one day and asked me why our electrical costs had dropped significantly over the past year. At first, we had no explanation as production hours, etc. were the same as the prior year. In evaluating all potential explanations, with the help of our refrigeration and engineering consultants, we determined that our compressors were the difference. The heads on the compressors were deposit-free and running cooler, which uses much less electricity. After extensive evaluation of electrical usage, we believe that we have conservatively achieved a 9% savings on total plant electrical use as a result of the Triangular Wave System and its effect on our compressors," commented Byrem.

Deposit Control Benefits

Corrosion Control

Biofilm Control

Save Water and Other Costs

Energy Savings

Softening Benefits

The actual field results from Kessler's Inc. are supported by conclusions published in Federal Technology Alerts Non-Chemical Technologies for Scale and Hardness Control (

Energy Savings Mechanism

The primary energy savings result from a decrease in energy consumption in heating or cooling applications. This saving is associated with the prevention or removal of scale build-up on a heat exchange surface where even a thin film (1/32" or 0.8mm) can increase energy consumption by nearly 10%. Example savings resulting from the removal of calcium-magnesium scales are shown in Table 1. A secondary energy savings can be attributed to reducing the pump load, or system pressure, required to move the water through a scale-free, unrestricted piping system.

Table 1. Example Increases in Energy Consumption as a Function of Scale Thickness

Scale Thickness
Increased Energy
Consumption (%)










Estimated Savings and Market Potential

As part of the NTDP (New Technology Demonstration Program) selection process, an initial technology screening activity was performed to estimate the potential market impact in the Federal sector. Two technologies were run through the assessment methodology. The first technology was assessed assuming the technology was applied to the treatment of boiler make-up water. The second technology was assessed assuming the technology was applied to both, the treatment of boiler make-up water and cooling tower water treatment. The technology screenings used the economic basis required by 10 CFR 436. The costs of the two technologies were different based on information provided by the manufacturers, thus leading to different results.

The technologies were ranked on a total of ten criteria. Three of these were financial, including net present value (NPV), installed cost, and present value of savings. One criterion was energy related: annual site energy savings. The remaining criteria were environmental and dealt with reductions in air emissions due to fuel or energy savings and included SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, particulate matter and hydrocarbon emissions.

The ranking results from the screening process for this technology are show in Table 2. These values represent the maximum benefits achieved by implementation of the technology in every Federal application where it is considered life-cycle cost effective. The actual benefit will be lower, because full market penetration is unlikely to ever be achieved.


Table 2. Screening Criteria Results

Screen Criteria
First Screen
Second Screen
Net Present Value ($)
Installed Cost ($)
Present Value of Savings ($)
Annual Site Energy Savings (Mbtu)
SO2 Emissions Reduction (lb/yr)
NOx Emissions Reduction (lb/yr)
CO Emissions Reduction (lb/yr)
CO2 Emissions Reduction (lb/yr)
Particulate Emissions Reduction (lb/yr)
Hydrocarbon Emissions Reduction (lb/yr)



Note: First Screen: Boiler make-up water treatment.
Second Screen: Cooling tower water treatment and boiler make-up water treatment.

Energy Savings

Energy savings result from both, reductions in pumping energy input to the system and reduction in fuel consumption. The first aspect has not been well quantified by the users or in any of the case studies. It is thought of as a secondary benefit.

Fuel consumption has been lowered in every situation. The exact savings are a result of a number of factors:

  • How effective the chemical scale control program may have been relative to the input water hardness.
  • How often the heat exchange system was taken down for maintenance and cleaning.

On systems that were descaled frequently or had low scale formation, due to low hardness and/or an effective chemical scale control program, the savings in fuel consumption were lower, often from a few percent to as much as 15%. The lower savings were at an installation using ion exchange softening of moderately hard water (less that 150 mg/L as calcium carbonate hardness). On systems where descaling was infrequent or absent altogether, or where the chemical scale control program was not as effective in controlling scale formation, fuel consumption savings ranged up to 30%. This was found to be the case in a installation using very hard water (hardness in excess of 300 mg/L as calcium carbonate), and a chemical scale control problem, with heat exchanger tubes closing due to scale formation after less than one year. In each case the fuel consumption savings was proportional to the thickness of the scale layer removed.

One important note was that fuel consumption savings often trailed installation of the technology by a significant period due to the fact that the savings is driven by the amount of scale on the heat exchange surface. The accumulated scale will erode over time, resulting in fuel consumption reductions. For this reason, many of the manufacturers recommend installing the technology only after the system has been descaled, thus savings in fuel consumption should be immediate.

Read more about how the TWT installation at Kessler's Inc. saves time, money, and worry!